As reported on Science Daily:
"The study found that a high intake of dietary cholesterol was not
associated with the risk of incident coronary heart disease -- not in
the entire study population nor in those with the APOE4 phenotype.
Moreover, the consumption of eggs, which are a significant source of
dietary cholesterol, was not associated with the risk of incident
coronary heart disease. The study did not establish a link between
dietary cholesterol or eating eggs with thickening of the common carotid
artery walls, either.
"The findings suggest that a high-cholesterol diet or frequent
consumption of eggs do not increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases
even in persons who are genetically predisposed to a greater effect of
dietary cholesterol on serum cholesterol levels. In the highest control
group, the study participants had an average daily dietary cholesterol
intake of 520 mg and they consumed an average of one egg per day, which
means that the findings cannot be generalised beyond these levels."
Table 3 of the study reports no increased risk of heart disease with egg intakes up to 36 g/d (about one large per day) nor for cholesterol intakes up to 522 mg per day, regardless of ApoE type.
The study population, ethnic Finns, are descendants of ancestors who survived the last Ice Age in Europe by hunting wild animals. Their ancestral diet was high in animal fat and protein and contained little plant matter. That diet selected against the survival of anyone who would have been harmed by animal fat or protein or required daily doses of plant foods to survive, thrive or reproduce.
In about 110 A.D., the Roman historian Tacitus reported on the food habits of the German people the Romans sought to conquer:
“Their food is of a simple kind, consisting of wild-fruit, fresh game, and curdled milk.”This describes a low carbohydrate, animal-based diet. Germans did not live by agriculture in 110 A.D., and they lived south of the Finns. We know that the Finns also ate an animal based diet.
What is more likely toxic to Europeans, meat and fat that enabled the European stock to survive in Europe through the last Ice Age and formed the basis of the European diet up until about 500-1000 years ago, or various plant foods, particularly refined carbohydrates that were never even available to Europeans until quite recently?
It seems that the hypothesis that heart disease is caused by eating cholesterol and other animal products is dying a long, slow but sure death, skewered by evolutionary theory and evidence to the contrary.
1. Tacitus, Germania and Agricola (Ostara Publications, 2016), p.9.