- Glucuronic acid, which binds to substances to facilitate their transport around the body. In this way glucuronic acid is largely responsible for the elimination of toxins such as drugs, excess hormones, and foreign chemicals.
- Hyaluronic acid, a constituent of extracellular fluids, needed for synovial fluid, cartilage, and skin.
- Chondroitin sulfates (a type of glycosaminoglycan), constituents of cartilage
- DNA and RNA
- Heparin (another glycosaminoglycan), an endogenous anticoagulant
“The enterohepatic circulation of vitamin B-12 is very important in vitamin B-12 economy and homeostasis (27). Nonvegetarians normally eat 2-6 mcg of vitamin B-12/d and excrete from their liver into the intestine via their bile 5-10 mcg of vitamin B-12/d. If they have no gastric, pancreatic, or small bowel dysfunction interfering with reabsorption, their bodies reabsorb ~3-5 mcg of bile vitamin B-12/d. Because of this, an efficient enterohepatic circulation keeps the adult vegan, who eats very little vitamin B-12, from developing vitamin B-12 deficiency disease for 20-30 y (27) because even as body stores fall and daily bile vitamin B-12 output falls with body stores to as low as 1 mcg, the percentage of bile vitamin B-12 reabsorbed rises to close to 100%, so that the whole microgram is reabsorbed.”